Since non-Hispanic whites have shown improved bone mineral density (BMD) in association with intake of dairy foods and compared to these subjects, a higher prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency has been seen among Puerto Rican adults, researchers performed this cross-sectional analysis to assess associations of dairy intakes with BMD among 904 adults from the Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study with and without adequate serum vitamin D status, using general linear models. They calculated dairy food groups [total dairy, modified dairy (without cream or dairy desserts), fluid dairy (milk + yogurt), cheese, yogurt, and cream and desserts], as well as BMD (grams per centimeter squared). The study participants comprised 73% women with 60.0 ± 7.6 y mean ± SD age and, 32.3 ± 6.6 mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2), with 87% being postmenopausal. In insufficient individuals and sufficient individuals, the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (range: 4–48 ng/mL) was 14.3 ± 3.6 ng/mL and 26.0 ± 5.5 ng/mL, respectively. Among adults, higher BMD was detected in association with dairy food intakes, this link was specifically found among those with sufficient vitamin D status.